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Enclosure fires
Autor Mesaj
Covalciuc Bogdan Offline
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Enclosure fires
Enclosure fires
Swedish Rescue Services Agency
Lars-Göran Bengtsson
Citat:Contents
Foreword 7
Overview 9
1. Introduction 11
2. How a fi re starts 17
2.1 Initial fi re 17
2.2 Ignition of solid material 20
2.3 Flaming combustion and smouldering 24
2.4 Surface fl ame spread 25
Thermal inertia, k_c 27
Surface direction 27
Surface geometry 29
Surrounding environment 29
2.5 Summary 30
Test your knowledge! 32
3. Early stage of fi re development 35
3.1 Smoke gases and heat release rate 36
Fire plume 37
Content of unburnt smoke gases 44
3.2 Flames 46
Diffusion fl ames 49
Premixed fl ames 54
Extinguishing fl ames 63
3.3 Pressure conditions in open and closed rooms 65
Inhibited thermal expansion 68
Thermal buoyancy 71
Pressure in a closed or almost completely closed room 74
Pressure in an open room 75
Pressure build-up in a room when smoke gases ignite 76
3.4 Summary 81
Test your knowledge! 82
4. Flashover 85
4.1. Definition of flashover 86
4.2 Conditions resulting in flashover 88
Heat release rate 90
Increasing the mass loss rate 93
4.3 Processes taking place in the smoke gas layer 97
4.4 Risk assessment 99
Smoke gases’ colour 99
Signs indicating an imminent fl ashover 102
Course of action 105
4.5 Summary 105
Test your knowledge! 106
Fire in the Stardust Club in Dublin 108
5. Fully developed compartment fi re and
decay period 111
6. Fire development in a room with limited
ventilation 115
6.1 Pulsations 115
6.2 Fire has spontaneously gone out 117
6.3 Fire resumes its development 119
6.4 Smoke gases auto-ignite 121
6.5 Backdraught 122
Defi nition of backdraught 124
A typical backdraught scenario 126
Gravity current 128
Ignition of premixed area 130
Conditions resulting in a backdraught 135
6.6 Risk assessment 137
Warning signs 137
Course of action 139
6.7 Summary 144
Test your knowledge! 146
Fire at 62 Watts Street 148
7. Smoke gas explosion 151
7.1 Defi nition of smoke gas explosion 152
7.2 Conditions required for smoke gas explosion 152
Factors affecting the power of a smoke gas explosion 153
7.3 Risk assessment 155
Signs indicating an imminent smoke gas explosion 155
Course of action 155
7.4 Summary 157
Test your knowledge! 158
Explosion at the Grand Hotel in Helsingborg 160
8. Grey areas between the various
phenomena 163
8.1 Differentiating between fl ashover and backdraught 163
8.2 Differentiating between smoke gases auto-igniting in the
opening and a backdraught 164
8.3 Differentiating between smoke gases auto-igniting and a fi re
resuming its development 164
8.4 Differentiating between a backdraught and a smoke gas
explosion 164
8.5 Differentiating between a fl ashover and a smoke gas
explosion 165
8.6 Summary 165
Sauna fi re in Kiruna 166
Glossary 168
Suggested solutions to test questions 172
Chapter 2 172
Chapter 3 172
Chapter 4 174
Chapter 6 175
Chapter 7 177
Sample calculations 178
Flammability limits 178
Flashover 181
Backdraught 182
List of quantities 183
References 187
Index 190
List of fi gures 192

Enclosure Fires

[attachment=1364]

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08-12-2012 09:56 AM
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